Saturday, May 23, 2020
American expatriate writer, her Paris home was a salon for artists and writers between the two World Wars. She lived with her companion Alice B. Toklas from 1912 until her death. Selected Gertrude Stein Quotations Ã¢â¬ ¢ It takes a lot of time to be a genius, you have to sit around so much doing nothing, really doing nothing. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Everybody gets so much information all day long that they lose their common sense. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Paris was the place that suited us who were to create the twentieth century art and literature. Ã¢â¬ ¢ A diary means yes indeed. Ã¢â¬ ¢ When they are alone they want to be with others, and when they are with others they want to be alone. After all, human beings are like that. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Artists do not experiment. Experiment is what scientists do; they initiate an operation of unknown factors to be instructed by its results. An artist puts down what he knows and at every moment it is what he knows at that moment. Ã¢â¬ ¢ It is funny the two things most men are proudest of is the thing that any man can do and doing does in the same way, that is being drunk and being the father of their son. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Jews have produced only three originative geniuses: Christ, Spinoza, and myself. Ã¢â¬ ¢ In the United States there is more space where nobody is than where anybody is. This is what makes America what it is. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Americans are very friendly and very suspicious, that is what Americans are and that is what always upsets the foreigner, who deals with them, they are so friendly how can they be so suspicious they are so suspicious how can they be so friendly but they just are. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Communists are people who fancied that they had an unhappy childhood. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Let me listen to me and not to them. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The minute you or anybody else knows what you are you are not it, you are what you or anybody else knows you are and as everything in living is made up of finding out what you are it is extraordinarily difficult really not to know what you are and yet to be that thing. Ã¢â¬ ¢ We are always the same age inside. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Any one doing something and standing is one doing something and standing. Some one was doing something and was standing. Any one doing something and standing is one doing something and standing. Any one doing something and standing is one who is standing and doing something. Some one was doing something and was standing. That one was doing something standing. Ã¢â¬ ¢ I do want to get rich, but I never want to do what there is to get rich. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Silent gratitude isnt very much use to anyone. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The composition is the thing seen by everyone living in the living they are doing, they are the composing of the composition that at the time they are living is the composition of the time in which they are living. Ã¢â¬ ¢ I like a view but I like to sit with my back turned to it. Ã¢â¬ ¢ A vegetable garden in the beginning looks so promising and then after all little by little it grows nothing but vegetables, nothing, nothing but vegetables. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Money is always there but the pockets change. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The thing that differentiates man from animals is money. Ã¢â¬ ¢ If you can do it then why do it? Ã¢â¬ ¢ The nineteenth century believed in science but the twentieth century does not. Ã¢â¬ ¢ It is the soothing thing about history that it does repeat itself. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Rose is a rose is a rose is a rose. Explore Womens Voices and Womens History Womens Voices - About Womens QuotesBiographiesToday in Womens History About These Quotes Quote collection assembled by Jone Johnson Lewis. Each quotation page in this collection and the entire collection Ã © Jone Johnson Lewis. This is an informal collection assembled over many years. I regret that I am not be able to provide the original source if it is not listed with the quote. Citation information:Jone Johnson Lewis. Gertrude Stein Quotes. About Womens History. URL: http://womenshistory.about.com/od/quotes/a/gertrude_stein.htm . Date accessed: (today). (More on how to cite online sources including this page)
Monday, May 18, 2020
In ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s book Walden, the author lets us know how he views happiness. And what obstacles he believes we must get through to achieve this happiness. He explains what his views are on happiness throughout some of his readings. Readings such as Where I Lived and What For, Reading, Solitude, and Conclusions. Throughout various text, Thoreau will prove to the readers what happiness looks like to him. Many things can be considered an obstacle to manÃ¢â¬â¢s happiness. The lack of money, loneliness, and illness to name a few. According to Thoreau, manÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest obstacles to happiness are the lack of experience, of knowledge, and culture. He urges men to read more, to fill himself with a rich sense of culture in order to gain a betterÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬Å"...soon enough to forget them when we have the learning and the genius which will enable us to attend to and appreciate themÃ¢â¬ (Thoreau, Ã¢â¬Å"Reading,Ã¢â¬ Par. 6). When focusing on something, we sometimes have the tendency to forget what happiness truly means to us. Some people focus too much on one certain thing and expect to have the true happiness we have been searching for. ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s proven point was to help the reader understand that taking new challenges is okay and it can helps us become happier and wiser. Happiness comes in all sorts of different ways and with the knowledge that we get whether it comes from books or nature, Thoreau knew that challenging oneself would help one reach the happiness they are searching for. Thoreau argues that happiness comes from you, not from the people around you or the things you have. Thoreau believes that people are spending too much time with each other, make them respect each other less and feel unhappy. He also thinks that when the more people are around you, you are lonely (Thoreau, par. 10). Thoreau is trying to prove that being alone with nature is the true happiness. I disagree with Thoreau; he made good points that you needed a break from people and from the things that distracted you. I believe that to find the happiness you need to have bond and connection with other people. It will help you forget about your problems. When people tend toShow MoreRelated Comparing Metaphors in Norman Macleans, A River Runs Through It and Henry David Thoreaus, Walden1463 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThrough It and Henry David Thoreaus, Walden In Norman Macleans A River Runs Through It, the author recounts the story of his early life growing up in Montana. The narrative revolves around his family and the art of fly fishing. Through the novel, Maclean begins to understand the wisdom of his father, the fierce independence and downfall of his brother, and the divinity and beauty of nature. A similar theme regarding divinity in nature is found in Henry David Thoreaus Walden. Building his own cabinRead MoreWalden and Transcendentalism Essay1545 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWALDEN AND TRANSCENDENTALISM Henry ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s masterpiece, Walden or a Life in the Woods, shows the impact transcendentalism had on ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s worldview. Transcendentalism is a philosophy that asserts the primacy of the spiritual over the material. Transcendentalism puts the emphasis on spiritual growth and understanding as opposed to worldly pleasures. ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of transcendentalism stressed the importance of nature and being close to nature. He believed that nature was a metaphorRead More Unexpected Critiques in Walden Essay1057 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesUnexpected Critiques in Walden In Walden, Henry David Thoreau utilizes many different styles and themes to explain his ideas about shelter in further detail. Thoreau uses lists, long and short sentences, imagery, and different narrative voices. But out of all the things Thoreau uses to strengthen his argument, the most powerful is his unexpected comparisons and his sarcasm towards shelter. Thoreau uses these to get the reader interested, but more importantly it gets the reader to reconsiderRead MoreHenry David Thoreau: Transcendentalist Writer2009 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesAmerican literature, including Walden and Ã¢â¬Å"Civil Disobedience.Ã¢â¬ The works of Henry David Thoreau were strongly influenced by the Transcendentalist movement and centered around his stay at Walden Pond. Henry David Thoreau was born in Concord, Massachusetts, on July 12, 1817, to John and Cynthia Thoreau. He was the third of four children (Bloom 7). From early on, Thoreau felt a strong connection to the natural world. This connection stemmed from the fact that both of ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s parents loved nature, oftenRead MoreNature Ralph Walden Emerson and Henry David Thoreau Walden1693 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSELDA PUR 2009105153 Ã¢â¬ËNATUREÃ¢â¬â¢ AND Ã¢â¬ËWALDENÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËNatureÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËWaldenÃ¢â¬â¢ are two art works basically giving the similar messages to the readers. Their writers are different but one of the things which make these works similar is Henry David Thoreau is affected by Ralph Waldo EmersonÃ¢â¬â¢s works and ideas very much. Secondly, their essays are both inspired from transcendentalism movement. Finally, their theme are both the same, they deal with mainly the idea of Ã¢â¬ËnatureÃ¢â¬â¢. While comparing these two essays, it isRead MoreHenry David Thoreau Essay3362 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pages These contradictions led to some of Thoreaus greatest pieces of literature. Henry David Thoreau was born in Concord, Massachusetts on July 12, 1817, in his grandmothers house. Thoreau believed that Concord was, the most estimable place in all the world, and in the very nick of time, too (Harding 4). Though Thoreau was born in the era of good feeling, his family experienced many misfortunes, politically, physically, and financially (4). Thoreaus father, John, was a small, quiet, manRead MoreA Romantic View Of Hester Prynne Essay1316 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMason Fleischauer Rahner Collegio Ms. Slevin and Mr. Arthur Final Draft A Romantic View of Hester Prynne Individualism, emotion and the purity and simplicity of nature are at the foundation of American Romanticism. Essays such as ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s Walden and EmersonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Self-RelianceÃ¢â¬ call on humans to look inward and avoid conformity in order to find meaning and purpose in life. Nathaniel Hawthorne is also sympathetic to these ideals, but in The Scarlet Letter, he conveys them in the format of a novel whereRead MoreChristopher Johnson Mccandless s Transcendentalism2535 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesDavid Thoreau had a strong bond with Emerson and his writings. To tell the truth, EmersonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"NatureÃ¢â¬ became the major point of ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s work. In Understanding ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Civil DisobedienceÃ¢â¬ which is published by Andrew Kirk, it is explained that Ã¢â¬Å"For Emerson, nature was the supreme determining force in human lives. Thoreau was to make the study of nature the central theme of his work, although paradoxically this became one of the chief causes of the later estrangement between the twoÃ¢â¬ (Kirk 13).Read MoreThe Emergence Of Self Concept1489 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfathers had the thought that they were romantics seeking after the fantasy of making a fair society. We notice the idea of self in the Declaration of Independence when American citizens were given the right to Ã¢â¬Å"life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.Ã¢â¬ From the new spirit of American Individualism and identity of the Revolutionary Period, many literary voices emerged during the nineteenth century to establish the American Literature. With a fresh and vastly expanding American culture, writersRead MoreEmily Dickinson: Transcendentalist Experience Through Imagination1514 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesliving in the woods, he found that fusing nature with soul, one can accomplish anything. Emerson felt that nature was an extension of five of his senses, where he could feel the tree moving in the wind as if it was his own body. He stressed the theme of having intercourse with heaven and earth, or interlacing your body and soul with nature. But, of all five senses, he stressed vision the most. Beauty can only be accomplished through the gate way of the eye, which is where most experiences are
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
When arguing the pros and cons of any issue, its usually helpful to have agreed-upon facts on hand. Unfortunately, when it comes to homeschooling, there are very few reliable studies and statistics available. Even something as basic as how many children are being homeschooled in a given year can only be guessed at. Here are a few of the reasons you should take any facts and figures you see regarding homeschooling Ã¢â¬â good or bad Ã¢â¬â with a grain of salt. The Definition of Homeschooling Differs Would you consider all these children homeschoolers? A child enrolled in a virtual public charter school who does all schoolwork at home.A child who spends part of the week in public school classes.A child who homeschooled some years but not others. When it comes to counting heads and drawing conclusions, its important to compare apples with apples. But since different studies use different definitions of homeschooling, its hard to know if studies are actually looking at the same group of kids. For instance, a report from the National Center for Education Studies, part of the U.S. Department of Education, includes students who spend up to 25 hours a week Ã¢â¬â five hours a day Ã¢â¬â attending classes in a public or private school. Its hard to equate that experience to that of a child who has never sat in a classroom. States Dont Keep Complete Records of Who Homeschools In the U.S., it is the states that oversee education, including homeschooling. And each states laws on the matter are different. In some states, parents are free to homeschool without even contacting the local school district. In other states, parents must send a Letter of Intent to homeschool and submit regular paperwork, which can include the scores of standardized tests. But even in states where homeschooling is closely regulated, good numbers are hard to come by. In New York, for example, parents must submit paperwork to the school district Ã¢â¬â but only for children within the age of compulsory education. Below the age of six, or after age 16, the state stops keeping count. So its impossible to know from state records how many families choose to homeschool kindergarten, or how many teens go on from homeschooling to college. Widely-Quoted Studies Are Biased Its hard to find an article about homeschool in the national media that does not include a quote from the Home School Legal Defense Association. HSLDA is a nonprofit homeschool advocacy group that offers legal representation to members in some cases involving homeschooling. HSLDA also lobbies state and national legislatures to present its conservative Christian viewpoint on issues regarding home education and family rights. So its fair to question whether HSLDAs studies represent only its constituents and not homeschoolers from other walks of life. Likewise, it seems reasonable to expect that studies by groups in favor of or opposed to homeschooling will reflect those biases. So its not surprising that the National Home Education Research Institute, an advocacy group, publishes studies that show the benefits of homeschooling. Teachers groups like the National Education Association on the other hand, often release statements criticizing homeschooling simply on the basis that it does not require parents to be licensed teachers. Many Homeschooling Families Choose Not to Take Part in Studies In 1991, Home Education Magazine ran a column by Larry and Susan Kaseman which advised parents to avoid taking part in studies about homeschooling. They argued that researchers could use their school-based biases to misrepresent the way that homeschooling works. For instance, a question about how many hours are spent teaching implies that parents should be sitting down with their kids doing desk work, and ignores the fact that a lot of learning happens in the course of everyday activities. The HEM article went on to say that academics who conduct studies often come to be regarded as experts on homeschooling, by the public and sometimes by homeschooling parents themselves. Their fear was that homeschooling would come to be defined by the measures looked at in the studies. Along with the issues raised by the Kasemans, many homeschooling families dont take part in studies to preserve their privacy. Theyd simply rather stay under the radar, and not risk being judged by people who might disagree with their educational choices. Interestingly, the HEM article came out in favor of case histories. According to the Kasemans, interviewing individual homeschooling families to hear what they have to say about their educational styles is a more effective and accurate way to provide data on what homeschooling is really like. Many Scholarly Studies Are Stacked Against Homeschooling Its easy to say that most homeschooling families are not qualified to educate their own children Ã¢â¬â if you define qualified to mean certified to teach in a public school. But could a medical doctor teach her children anatomy? Of course. Could a published poet teach a homeschool workshop on creative writing? Who better? How about learning bike repair by helping out in a bike shop? The apprenticeship model worked for centuries. Measures of public school success like test scores are often meaningless in the real world, as well as in homeschooling. Thats why demands that homeschoolers submit to more testing and studies that look at homeschooling through the lens of traditional schooling can miss the true advantages of learning outside a classroom. Homeschool Research to Take With a Grain of Salt Here are some links to research on homeschooling, from a variety of sources. Number of Homeschoolers by State: Updated listings by Ann Zeise from A2Z Homes Cool.The International Center for Home Education Research: Formed in 2012, this group says it provides nonpartisan information about homeschooling.Education Week Homeschooling article: Overview from 2011 with links to related articles and studies.New Nationwide Study Confirms Homeschool Academic Achievement: HSLDA article with links to studies.1.5 Million Homeschooled Students in the United States in 2007: Article from the National Center for Education Studies.What Have We Learned About Homeschooling?: Article by E. Isenberg from the Peabody Journal of Education, 2007, that discusses the lack of reliable data on homeschooling.Home Schooling in the United States: Trends and Characteristics: Study by K. Bauman published in Education Policy Analysis Archives in 2002, using data from the 1990s.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
FIRST INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION | | | SUBMITTED BY: POOJA SHRESTHA | BBA-BISECTION- A | SEMESTER-1 | 12/6/2011 | | My mother never worked COMPREHENSSSION 1. What kind of work did Martha Smith do while her children were growing up? List some of the chores she performed? The writer Donna Smith-YackelÃ¢â¬â¢s mother did lots of work throughout her life. She was a mother of more than half dozen of children. While her children were growing up she had to do many works, tasks and household chores to sustain or to keep family going. After her marriage, she helped her husband in farming. She learned to set hens, and raise chickens, feed pigs, milk cows, plant and harvest a garden and carry every fruits andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Even though the meaning of both the sentences is the same, the charm of the first sentence is gone. The beauty of the words presented by the writer is lost and the sentence is even not effective as the first one. 4. Throughout her narrative, Smith Yackel uses concrete, specific verbs. Review her choice of verbs, particularly in paragraphs 13-24, and comment on how much verbs serve the essayÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose. The writer uses concrete and specific verbs in the essay. Some of the used by her are plucked, stuffed and harvested. The essayÃ¢â¬â¢s main purpose is to make the readers know what kind of tasks her mother did throughout her life. Journal entry Do you believe homemakers should be entitled to social security death benefits? Explain. I believe homemakers should be entitled to the social security death benefits. According to the law of government any job or work done by a person is considered as work only when he gives his service to the country and expects wages from it and pays a part of it as a tax to government. The work or household chores done by house makers to sustain their family is not considered work. Federal law entitles with social security death benefits to only those who, in the eyes of state, worked during their life. Here Ã¢â¬ËworkedÃ¢â¬â¢ means a job or trade done in a legal manner or work that can be recognized in terms of documents. Unfortunately the work done by Martha smith did all her life do not fall underShow MoreRelatedMississippi River and Essay9274 Words Ã |Ã 38 Pagesentitled for a death benefit. Thesis is not explicitly stated as it is not mentioned in the introduction part or in the conclusion part. 2. This essay appeared in ms magazine and other publications whose audiences are sympathetic to feminist goals? Could it just as easily have appeared in the magazine whose audience was not? Explain. This essay is mainly focused towards the feminist side but the fact is that it also has a human appeal that suits everyone to read it and also understand exactlyRead MoreMississippi River Watershed Essay795 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespollution of environments all of the world, todayÃ¢â¬â¢s rivers serve as chemical fingerprints, so to speak, for their respective ecosystems. They carry chemical cocktails, and a new study recently analyzed the nuanced differences between substances throughout a watershed to figure out more about the biological processes happening both in the water and on land. This was a Mississippi River watershed comprised of all the headwaters of the Upper Mississippi. The study, published in the niche journal, GlobalRead More Technologys Impact on the Upper Mississippi River Essay2338 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesTechnologys Impact on the Upper Mississippi River Since the days of Lewis and Clark men have dreamed of harnessing the Father of Waters in the interests of commerce and development. The long struggle which ensued required incredible ingenuity and determination on the part of engineers as well as enormous capital investment. The Mississippi River Commission, established in 1897, was the first federal program designed specifically to meet these requirements, and early systems, instituted byRead MoreThe History of The State of Mississippi553 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMississippi History Well, my essay is about Mississippi. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a great place to be. There all kinds of events you can participate in. Blues music its part of MississippiÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. This music comes from slaves in the fields, singing about their struggles, their conditions and their sorry. Many of the songs carried secret messages of escaping the plantation life. The music told of life experiences as slaves knew them. The stories sung about in their music went back before the Civil War and evenRead MoreMark Twain And Zitkala Sa949 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMark Twain and Zitkala-Sa Essay In the Mark TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s and Zitkala-SaÃ¢â¬â¢s stories, they had an aim and idea of cold anti-colonial war against the United States. Mark Twain used Native Americans as the primary and hypocritical element against the United States aggression towards the Indian nations. TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s historically updated mind shaped his Missouri and Mississippi Valley s identity that permits accessibility to his protest against global imperialism. Zitkala-Sa critiques express in depth conflictsRead MoreAnalysis Of The Negro Speaks Of Rivers796 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"The Negro Speaks of RiversÃ¢â¬ - Langston Hughes Ã¢â¬Å"The Negro Speaks of RiversÃ¢â¬ by Langston Hughes is a 10 line lyric poem in free verse. This poem is compiled of 5 stanzas with various line lengths. Ã¢â¬Å"The Negro Speaks of RiversÃ¢â¬ doesnt rhyme, however, the repetition of the word Ã¢â¬Å"riversÃ¢â¬ insinuates transition. This essay focuses on the importance of the word Ã¢â¬Å"riversÃ¢â¬ throughout the poem because it discusses the origins of humanity and the interplay between racism and equality. Hughes discusses theRead MoreT.S. Eliot, Langston Hughes and Modern Poetry852 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesStearns Eliot) and Langston Hughes wrote what scholars of today consider, modern poetry. Writers in that time period had their own ideas of what modern poetry should be and many of them claimed that they wrote modern work. According to T.S. EliotÃ¢â¬â¢s essay, Ã¢â¬Å"From TraditionÃ¢â¬ , modern poetry must consist of a Ã¢â¬Å"tradition[al] matter of much wider significance . . . if [one] want[s] it [he] must obta in it by great labour . . . no poet, no artist of any art, has his complete meaning alone. His significanceRead MoreThe Louisiana Territory And How It Changed America Forever1066 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessettled from the Mississippi River in the east to the Rocky Mountains in the west and from the Gulf of Mexico in the south to the Canadian border in the north. With the Louisiana Purchase the U.S acquired most of that land. How did this land help define the United States of America as a Nation? This essay will discuss the actions leading up to the Acquirement of the Louisiana territory and how it changed America forever. In 1762 France ceded French Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to Spain. TheRead MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain1154 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesto Twains idea in individuality is in the narration, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and is written in the first person, from HuckÃ¢â¬â¢s view in the story. Twains points out that Huck is at his best is when he is alone on the raft going down the Mississippi. Isolated, Huck makes decisions on his own, escaping society. Twain clearly suggests that Huck is a better individual by himself. He also touches on HuckÃ¢â¬â¢s Loneliness. Introduced as the protagonist in the story, Huck is characterized as a lonelyRead MoreBiography of Mark Twain Essay1175 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMissouri, a port on the Mississippi River, when he was four years old. There he received a public school education. After the death of his father in 1847, Clemens was apprenticed to two Hannibal printers, and in 1851 he began setting type for and contributing sketches to his brother Orions Hannibal Journal. Subsequently he worked as a printer in Keokuk, Iowa; New York City; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and other cities. Later Clemens was a steamboat pilot on the Mississippi River until the American
The recently released air quality study from Alarm Quality Management District (CAME) showed that Carson had a higher level of carcinogens than a comparable city because of the excessive use of cigarette smoke. In this year alone, he Surgeon General reported an Increase of deaths by 20% due to cigarette smoking, I. . We will write a custom essay sample on Love love life or any similar topic only for you Order Now , emphysema, heart disease, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The pollutant level from cigarette smoke has increased the likelihood of a health related illness and/or death by 40%. COW Lives Wellness Inc. Has proposed to reduce cigarette smoking by 30% over the next three years. Our comprehensive program Includes two components. One component target individuals who do not smoke and the other component target individuals who want to stop smoking. Although the programs are different in approach, they share the same outcome. CHEVY has partnered with the Boys and Girls Club of Carson and the older. By using electronic media, posters, pamphlets, and scheduling site visits, COW will be a constant and continual presence, enforcing the effects of cigarette smoking on health and the community. We will have guest speakers talk about youth and cigarette smoke, filmstrips to hospitals and respiratory centers, and the program culminates with a visit to the county medical examinerÃ¢â¬â¢s office where the students will see a posthumous lung, esophagi, and larynx that were affected by cigarette smoke or second hand cigarette smoke. The second component deals with individuals who are currently smoking. This program includes a medical program where the client would meet with a medical doctor prior to moving on through our variety of treatment and counseling and education programs. The participants in this component will also be required to work with the participants in the prevention component to give a Ã¢â¬Å"real-lifeÃ¢â¬ perspective on what smoking has done to them in their lives. Our eager and passionate team consists of our President, EireÃ¢â¬â¢s Wicks, MD. , MBA, specializing in pediatric behaviors, with 12 years of experience in operating a successful non-profit organization; Vanessa Knee, Ph. D. De. , Vice President and Director of Education, with 10 years of experience creating educational curriculum for K-12 schools; Hydra. Hearer, Vice President and Chief of Communications, MasterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in Communications and Community Relations. Ms. Hearer has 10 years of experience in Public Outreach and Media Relations; and Chris Anderson, Director of Operations and Case Management. Mr.. Anderson has a dual MasterÃ¢â¬â¢s Degree in Psychology and Sociology, and has 10 yearsÃ¢â¬â¢ experience specializing in chemical dependency and addition; COW mission is clear, and we are equipped and ready to save lives. We request that you partner with us by funding $80,000. 00 to help bring this life saving program to fruition. Sincerely, EireÃ¢â¬â¢s R. Wicks President Carson, CA has a population of about 92,000, 76% are adults, and 24% are people under the age of 18. The community is inundated with poor air quality due to industry and cigarette smoking. With an overwhelming number of documented smokers (13. 7%), and the increase of new smokers, the community is in dire need of an intervention. Recent studies have shown an increase in smoking related deaths ever the past year and Air Quality Management District has deemed Carson as the unhealthiest city in the South Basin. If this community is not given an opportunity to receive professional help to end smoking addiction in addition to smoking prevention programs, the city of Wildfowl will slowly self-destruct. Worse yet, this problem would reach further than the City of Carson, economic impact would spread to the County, State, and Federal Government who would incur the medical costs and lose the worthwhile contributions to society that would have come from this thriving immunity. Project Abstract COW Lives Inc. Is seeking grant funding to improve air quality and reduce smoker related illnesses and deaths in the community of Carson, CA. Smoking cigarettes is proven to be one of the most preventable causes of death in the United States. Studies show that cigarette smoking is one of the most highly addictive and destructive behaviors of modern mankind. Documented consequences of cigarette smoking include high risk exposure to deadly diseases such as lung cancer, emphysema, and heart disease. The number of people under the age of 70 ho die from smoking related diseases exceeds the total figure for deaths caused by breast cancer, AIDS, traffic accidents, and drug addictions combined. Dating back to the sassÃ¢â¬â¢s the US Surgeon General has warned that cigarette smoking is hazardous to human health. Many public awareness attempts have been made over the years to warn against cigarette smoking however there remains much more that needs to be done to target and prevent children from starting the addictive behavior of cigarette smoking and educating addicted smokers on available proven methods to stop the addiction. Carson, CA is a community located in the East Los Angles area of Southern CA with a population of 15,000, 65% adult and 35% children under the age of 18. Current statistics show that 85% of the adults in Wildfowl have smoked cigarettes for all of their adult life with 40% starting before reaching the age of 18. Additionally studies released by the regionsÃ¢â¬â¢ Air Quality Management District (CAME) reported Wildfowl as having one of the highest rates of airborne carcinogens in the southern basin. Miming to gather more activistsÃ¢â¬â¢ against smoking, our project proposes to reduce make and tobacco use in the targeted community of Carson by 30% over 3 years. To conduct our project we have a team of (10) college pre-medical and graduate study students consisting of (3) medical students, (3) sociology majors, (2) psychology majors, and (2)K-12 education majors. The community of Carson has seven K-12 public schools; (4) elementary, (2) middle, and (1) senior. The largest employer of adult workers is Aerospace Incorporated, an industry with two major manufacturing plants in Carson employing 80% of the adult working population. How to cite Love love life, Papers
Questions: Despite recent developments in the field of Litigation, parties embroiled in an oil and gas dispute still prefer to choose International Commercial Arbitration as a preferred method of resolving their disputes. Examine the truth behind this statement and evaluate the reasons why this may be the case in Oil and Gas Disputes. Must reveal evidence of sufficient reading and research, and, must refer to industry related academic journals and articles adequately. Answers: Introduction Oil and natural gas has today evolved to a highly tradable commodity due to its easy access in the form of pipelines known as Liquefied Petroleum Gas. Due to the increasing international exchange and oil and gas agreements, many complex issues have to be addressed by the host country and the foreign oil company (Oil and Gas disputes, 2015). Innumerable debates are raised concerning the issue. There are lot of rules and regulations concerning the oil and gas industries and it is concerned largely by the states. The main issue relates to the extent to which the regulations can be imposed and this varies from one state to another. Applicability of the International Law Usually the disputes in such contracts involve two different countries, the governments of which might be at war with each other. Thus, the legal system encompasses within itself a host of issues related to type of legal systems used, national sovereignty, international treaties and conventions, extraterritorial application of domestic laws, so on and so forth (Born, 2009). Usually the contracts define the mode of dispute resolution to be used in such cases. The principle of sovereign immunity is recognized in international law, which states that a party to the contract cannot be sued in a foreign land without the presence of an express or implied clause in the contract for the same. There are also Corporations that recognize the principle of restrictive sovereign immunity. The United States also allows a waiver of the express or implied clause of the sovereign immunity by application of the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act. Thus modern laws and agreements are changing to treat every one on equal terms but litigation related to oil and gas are still complicated to be resolved as they are encompassed by political and national issues which are better dealt with through diplomacy (Brister, 2014). Key Principles in Contract Formation The oil exploration process is sought to high risk. Therefore, they types of agreements that could be potentially entered into could be joint operating agreement or marketing agreement. In a joint operating agreement, one party is termed as the operating party who is responsible for the day-to-day exploration and exploration of oil and the management of the related affairs. The other non-operating party will reimburse the operating party at the fixed decided percentage or on a pro rata basis (Brister, 2014). Thus in this type of contract, the determination of the share of interest is the most vital aspect and can be the subject matter of the dispute. The accounting principles also lay down the estimate of the expenses and revenues, the basis for reimbursement of costs incurred by the operating party and the indemnification of liabilities of the operating party in case of default or negligence. Thus, the authorization of any payment or liability is decided by the votes cast either in favor or against the proposed resolution (Kolkey et. al, 2012). The second type of contract with reference to oil and gas is marketing contract wherein the rights for marketing and sale of the oil and Liquefied Natural Gas are sold to the counter party who might be in another nation. These contracts require proper knowledge of the market and the ability to store, transport the gas through the pressurized tanks, and develop the adequate facilities to maintain them at the required temperature. All this involves heavy cost and so the market research has to be extensively done before entering into a marketing contract (Brister, 2014). In contracts, dispute resolution provisions are usually an afterthought pondered upon when the relationships have already got strained. Thus, it is essential that adequate importance should be given to these provisions at the initial stages itself. Dispute Resolution Disputes may be related to boundary claims, jurisdiction claims, equipments and assets related claims, quantity and quality of goods, insurance and hedging issues. Though every nation has sufficient number of courts and legal systems in place to effectively address these issues, it is seen that Alternate Dispute Resolution Process in increasing adopted by parties in comparison to the litigation process (Kluwer, 2014). Types of Arbitration Arbitration is the mechanism that allows the disputes to be resolved outside the courts. The two major types of arbitration are institutional arbitration and ad-hoc arbitration. Under institutional arbitration, the parties to the dispute submit the proceedings to a particular arbitral institution for determination. Such institutions have a pre determined set of policies and procedures to conduct the arbitral proceedings. The parties can do the court for arbitration and the selection of the qualified arbitrators. The fees charged for this can sometimes be more than the amounts involved in the dispute that is a disadvantage (Kluwer, 2014). In ad hoc arbitration, there are no fees payable to the arbitral institution and the selection of the arbitrators, rules and the parties decide all regulations for the arbitration. Thus there is more flexibility in an ad hoc arbitration and so is more suitable for the smaller or less expensive claims (British Petroleum, 2015). Arbitration versus Litigation The Oil and Gas industry has undergone a massive change after the liberalization and the opening up of nations for more trade and agreements. The traditional court proceedings require the disclosure of sensitive information, which might be of strategic importance, and so this is seen as a demerit of litigation. For instance in the case of Lyondell-CITGO Refining, LP v. Petroleos de Venezuela, the US Court demanded access to the Board Meeting Minutes though the Venezuela Law prohibits access to the same without appropriate security clearances. Thus, the Plaintiff was in an unenviable position (Buhring Kirchhof, 2006). In such cases, International Arbitration forums come to rescue where the access can be refused by resorting to the NOC. The International Commercial Arbitration rules permit the selection and appointment of an impartial expert to review the documents and determine the objectivity and propriety of the information contained subject to the appropriate security clearances (Kendall, 2008). Usually oil and gas contracts involve parties from two different countries and neither party will be willing to be subject to the laws of another country. To prevent a home country advantage for any one party, the International Arbitration Rules require the appointment of a neutral arbitrator after analyzing the residence of the independent arbitrator and the relationship of the arbitrators nation with the nations of the parties to the arbitration (Buhring Kirchhof, 2006). Hence, arbitration is the best method that can be resorted to in case of disputes and is a strong option for both the parties. The corresponding proceedings are also simpler and more flexible in comparison to the US Courts. The IBA Rules also contain a provision wherein the Arbitral Tribunal can pronounce the judgment without withholding the compelling and sensitive documents (Deventer, 2010). The US Courts permit withholding information of the common law grounds but does not recognize the exclusion of disclosure due to technical or commercial confidentiality. The arbitration institutions again recognize this. Thus, it is seen that largely arbitration has more lenient terms than courts with respect to the disclosure of information. Parties drafting the arbitration agreement can include the procedure for arbitration based on mutual understanding and coherence (Deventer, 2010). Party Autonomy is also one vital principle of the International Arbitration that states that the parties are free to choose the set of arbitrators and the seat of arbitration. However in cases where the parties fail to choose these, it shall be decided by the Arbitral Institution (Kendall, 2008). The Arbitrators chosen are usually qualified and experts in the subject and possess adequate knowledge about the subject matter of the contract as they are specifically selected and appointed by the parties as opposed to the court judges and magistrates who do not necessarily possess knowledge about every specific business case that comes across them (Buhring Kirchhof, 2006). The Arbitrators do no have any relation with the parties or the country to the dispute. Litigation process In litigation, the judges are typically appointed by the state and the state law prevails at the venue decided by the jurisdiction under which the case falls. This is construed as a strict and formal proceeding. On the contrary, in arbitration here is freedom without limits with respect to all these aspects. The litigation process is completely out of control of the parties to the case who have to be a the mercy of the advocates, lawyers and barristers who fight the case on their behalf and can turn he case the way they like by their mastery over language. Whereas in case of arbitration, the case is more personal to the parties as they fight it and argue on their own, for themselves and for their benefit. Thus, gain or loss belongs to the parties themselves (Kolkey et. al, 2012). The time and costs involved in litigation are also high as the court fees, barrister fees, etc have to be met and the court keeps giving newer dates for the producing of evidences. Arbitration cannot be called a less expensive approach at all times, but it is definitely less time consuming. On the other hand, court involves a lot of time and is expensive too (Paul, 2010). The privacy and confidentiality are the two important aspects that can be efficiently maintained in the arbitration proceedings. Need for Arbitration Due to the widespread globalization today, the impact of one particular court order can be seen on other transactions also. As seen in a recent case of Yukos, Russias largest oil private player which filed for bankruptcy in Texas, the Russian Government could not force the sale of assets of the company as it had obtained an injunction order against the sale in Texas. Deutsche Bank also refused to finance a party participating in the sale of the assets of Yukos. Thus, it can be seen that the commercial and global parties are impacted by court orders and so to avoid all this, international arbitration can be seen as a mechanism for the resolution of disputes by enabling the parties to draft favorable contractual terms (Horton, 2012). Off late, private oil, players are subject to criticisms due to the massive profits they make and are subject to frequent scrutiny by the taxation authorities for the windfall profits, at the same time the pay packages of the top executives are under scanner. The litigation process in the courts makes a lot of information public that can be avoided through international arbitration (Born, 2014). When two parties go to the court, there is enmity between them leading to bitter relationships. Usually oil and gas contracts are for decades and long term, so the maintenance of amicable relationships is necessary. Peaceful ways will lead to better understanding and judgment. Moreover, it will not spoil the business that is running (Born, 2014). Arbitration provides for dispute resolution in a peaceful and friendly manner by which businesses can be run normally even after the disputes. The appropriateness and the autonomy of the parties are maintained to foster a long term business relationship. Disruption in the business can lead to heavy for both the parties and huge cost can be involved in the process of litigation. Resorting to the process of arbitration is the best mechanism in the long run. Both the parties can get satisfaction after resorting to arbitration. Conclusion Due to the unique advantages, the international commercial arbitration should be largely adopted by companies as a standard mode of settling disputes. This will set a theme of peaceful action. Moreover, it helps in settling of disputes by resorting to arbitrators instead of courts. Settlement in the court takes time and money is wasted. There are many points to prove the neutrality of the arbitration proceedings which repeatedly the traditional courts have failed to deliver. Traditional courts are also time-consuming in nature and therefore it cannot be said to be desirable at all times. Moreover, arbitration settles the dispute by considering the matter of both the [arties and hence is effective in nature. Thus, the need to create a win-win situation even after the dispute is essential which in most cases is achieved by arbitration. References Born, G 2009, International Commercial Arbitration, Kluwer Born, G 2014, International Commercial Arbitration, Frederick, MD: Wolters Brister, A 2014, Farmout Agreements: The Basics, Negotiations and Motivations. Oil and Gas Law Digest. Brister, A 2014, Introduction to Joint Operating Agreements. Oil and Gas Law Digest. British Petroleum 2015, BP Global/About BP/Angola, viewed 15 March 2016, www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle.do?categoryId=427contentId=2000571#2014344. Buhring,U.C and Kirchhof, G.L 2006, Arbitration and Mediation in International Business, Washington DC. Deventer, N.K 2010, Yearbook commercial arbitration, Huntington: New York Horton D 2012, Federal Arbitration Act Preemption, Purposivism, and State Public Policy. Forthcoming in Georgetown Law Journal. Kendall, J 2008, Expert Determination. 4th edition Kluwer A 2014, International Commercial Arbitration, Austin: Walters Kolkey, D.M, Chernick, R, Neal, B.R 2012, Practitioners Handbook On Arbitration and Mediation, Huntington, N.Y. Oil and Gas disputes 2015, Global Dispute oil and gas, viewed 15 March 2016, https://www.fess-global.org/files/OilandGas.pdf. Paul, S.T 2010, LLM Oil Gas Law, University of Aberdeen: Assistant Lecturer, Rivers State University Of Science And Technology, Port Harcourt: Nigeria.
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Corporate Finance Capital and Funding. Answer: Introduction The corporate finance is defined as a particular area of finance that deals with the funding source and the capital structure of the organization and the activities that the managers take for enhancing the value of the business to the shareholders (Brealey et al. 2012). In addition to this, the corporate finance is used as the instrument that helps in analyzing and allocating the financial resources (Damodaran 2016). Therefore, the consulting firms generally provide the financial advice by using the concepts of corporate finance. In this assignment, the organization named National Australia Bank has been selected in order to provide financial advice regarding the financial condition and financial position of the firm in the current competitive market. In order to provide financial service to the firm, the background of the particular firm, its current financial standing including the information regarding its share value, market value and debt to profit ratio have been analyzed. In addition to these, the most recent capital raising activity like debt financing and equity financing have also been studied in detail. Lastly, depending on the financial strategy of the particular organization, the methods of raising the company funds have also be analyzed and accordingly advice has been provided to National Australia Bank regarding raising funds and its financial position in the market. Company Background The organization National Australia Bank is a public company that is enlisted in the Australian Stock Exchange as NAB. The particular firm belongs to the banking and financial services sector that was founded in the year 1982 as National Commercial Banking Corporation of Australia Limited (Capital.nab.com.au 2016). The specified firm is headquartered at Melbourne in Australia and serves across Australia, Asia and New Zealand. Andrew Thorburn is the CEO of the organization, whereas, Kenneth R Henry AC is the Chairman of the firm. The main products served by the firm National Australia Bank include Business banking, Wholesale banking, Consumer Banking and Wealth management insurance. As per the annual report of the firm for the year 2015, the revenue was A$ 20.176 billion, the net income was A$ 6.357 billion and the total assets were around A$ 945.0 billion (Capital.nab.com.au 2016). On the other hand, as per the year 2016, the total numbers of employees are 35,063 (Capital.nab.com.au 2016). It has been found that the particular firm is considered as one of the four largest monetary institutions of the country based on its market capitalization and consumers. In the year 2014, National Australia Bank was ranked 21st largest bank across the world based on its market capitalization and was ranked 41st largest bank across the world based on its total assets (Capital.nab.com.au 2016). The particular firm has a total of 1590 service centers and branches and about 4412 ATMs throughout Australia, Asia and New Zealand that provides services to around 12.7 million clients (Capital.nab.com.au 2016). Current Financial Condition of National Australia Bank The analysis of the financial condition of a firm helps an analyst to understand the present situation of the firm and also helps to estimate its future (Coles, Lemmon and Meschke 2012). Depending on the historical performance and the present financial condition of the firm, the future can be predicted and analyzed. Based on this analysis, a company should invest in long term or short term goal accordingly. Moreover, this financial analysis will also help the firm to proof its stability regarding both its financial and economical status (Roberts and Whited 2012). Additionally, a positive result of the analysis will also help the firm to attract more investors. Therefore, in order to better understand the present financial condition of the organization National Australia Bank, its market value, share value and debt to profit ratio have been analyzed. The market value is also known as market capitalization of a publicly traded organization. It is generally attained by the multiplication of the number of outstanding stocks with the present price of the share. The market value of an organization acts as a good indicator of the perception of the investors regarding the prospects of the business. The higher market value implies the firm has a greater valuation. It has been found that the market capitalization for the organization National Australia Bank is AUD 71.151 billion (Bloomberg.com 2016). This implies that the particular firm has a higher valuation in the present market. On the other hand, from a detailed historical study, it can be said that the share price of the firm National Australia Bank remained constant for a whole year that is from September 2015 till today (September 2016). During September 2015, the share price was around AUD 26.17 then it started to increase constantly till December, 2015 and reached to AUD 27.72 (In.finance.yahoo.com 2016). However, the stock price decreased certainly to 25.39 in January 2016, but it again started to increase spontaneously and as per today, the stock price of the particular firm is AUD 26.78 (In.finance.yahoo.com 2016). From this, it can be said that the financial condition of the firm is constant and due to its both economical and financial constancy, more investors will put their fund and invest in this firm National Australia Bank for earning a more return. In other words, it can also be said that due to its constantly increasing share price, the valuation of the firm also enriches with the passage of time. Generally, the debt to profit ratio indicates the amount of debt of a firm in respect to its profit percentage. Thus, it can be said that the lower the ratio will be it is better for the firm. However, for the banking sector, the debt to profit ratio is comparatively more than the other industries. It is about 3.1, but for the firm National Australia Bank, this ratio is equivalent to 2.62 (Markets.ft.com 2016). This implies that the particular firm has a better financial condition than any other banks in the present competitive market. Recent Capital Raising Activity It is an essential factor for every firm to raise or increase its capital, as it is the key element that helps the business to operate and regulate successfully. There are various activities that help an organization to raise its capital, however, the most useful activities include equity financing and debt financing. Therefore, it has been found that the firm National Australia Bank also implements this method for raising its capital. It has been found that the particular firm has implemented both the methods. Thus, the total liabilities of the organization increased from $ 48197 million in the year 2014 to $ 55217 million in the year 2015 (Nab.com.au 2016). Moreover, from detailed analysis, it can be said that firms deposits and other borrowings have certainly increased from $ 374538 million in the year 2014 to $ 391785 million in the year 2015 (Nab.com.au 2016). This indicates that National Australia Bank has opted for debt financing. Additionally, it has been found that the equi ty of the firm has also increased from $ 48197 million in 2014 to $ 55217 million in the year 2015 (Nab.com.au 2016). Moreover, the contributed equity of National Australia Bank has certainly increased from $ 27856 million to $ 34407 million in the year 2015 (Nab.com.au 2016). From this it can be said that National Australia Bank also implements the equity financing. Financial Strategy of National Australia Bank It has been found that there are various financial strategies that most of the banks use in order to raise the funds of the particular organization. These include raising venture and growth capital, merger and acquisition, divestitures, buyouts by the financial sponsors, spin-offs, private placements and distressed debt (Flannery and Hankins 2013). The other financial strategies include mezzanine financings, capital restructuring, buy outs, right issues, debentures and structured investment and convertible products. However, it has been found that the specified firm National Australia Bank implements the following financial strategies including trading derivatives, financial liabilities at fair value, hedging strategies, demerger, acquisitions, divestments, raising venture, financial sponsors, debentures and convertible products (Nab.com.au 2016). Thus, it can be said that by implementing all these financial strategies within the firm National Australia Bank, the organization can maximize the value of its shareholders. This also characterizes the performance of the firm and determines the ways to raise its operating funds by increasing the return on investments (Vernimmen et al. 2014). On the other hand, the financial strategies analysis helps the business to draw a clear picture regarding the goals and objectives of the organization. This also helps to identify the targets of the organization and helps to keep focus on the profitability of the firm. However, the focus of the monetary strategies guides to understand the sales margin of the firm that is expressed in terms of percentages of profit. The increased amount of profit helps the particular firm to earn more shareholders as the valuation of the company increases (Waegelein and Finance 2014). All these help to increase the market capitalization of the firm and therefore, it can be said that the implementation of the financial strategies in the overall operations of the firm help to enhance its operations. Moreover, the increased valuation also helps the specified firm National Australia Bank to run better in the competitive market as the high value of the firm helps to assess the possibility of success and re al outcomes. Furthermore, the incorporation of the financial strategies in the firm helps to reduce the overall costs by eliminating the low-value product and by putting focus on the high-value products (Fracassi 2016). It has been found that the implementation of the financial strategies help to reduce the financing costs by decreasing the interest paid and also by accelerating the due payments. The mentioned financial strategies help the organization National Australia Bank to put focus on the trends of interest rates and the exchange rates. In addition to these, the financial strategies also guide the firm to prepare a strategic plan that helps to make plan regarding short-term and long-term investment depending on the financial situation of the organization (Hillier et al. 2014). Conclusion Therefore, it can be concluded that the firm National Australia Bank is in a relatively better financial and economical condition. The reason behind this is that the particular firm has a high market capitalization or market value. In addition to this, it has been found that the share price of the company is constantly increasing for over one year, thus it attracts more investors. Moreover, the debt to profit ratio is also relatively healthier in case of the firm National Australia Bank than the other organizations of the similar sector. It has been found that the organization has implemented various financial strategies for raising its funds in the present competitive market. However, the liabilities of the firm has increased with the passage of time, thus, it should reduce its total liability in order to run the organization successfully in future. References Bloomberg.com. 2016.NAB:ASE Stock Quote - National Australia Bank Ltd. [online] Available at: https://www.bloomberg.com/quote/NAB:AU [Accessed 15 Sep. 2016]. Brealey, R.A., Myers, S.C., Allen, F. and Mohanty, P., 2012.Principles of corporate finance. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. Capital.nab.com.au. 2016.Capital and Funding - The National Australia Bank Group - NABGroup home. [online] Available at: https://capital.nab.com.au/ [Accessed 15 Sep. 2016]. Coles, J.L., Lemmon, M.L. and Meschke, J.F., 2012. Structural models and endogeneity in corporate finance: The link between managerial ownership and corporate performance.Journal of Financial Economics,103(1), pp.149-168. Damodaran, A., 2016.Damodaran on valuation: security analysis for investment and corporate finance(Vol. 324). John Wiley Sons. Flannery, M.J. and Hankins, K.W., 2013. Estimating dynamic panel models in corporate finance.Journal of Corporate Finance,19, pp.1-19. Fracassi, C., 2016. Corporate finance policies and social networks.Management Science. Hillier, D., Clacher, I., Ross, S., Westerfield, R. and Jordan, B., 2014.Fundamentals of Corporate Finance. McGraw Hill. In.finance.yahoo.com. 2016.NAB.AX Historical Prices | NAT. BANK FPO Stock - Yahoo! India Finance. [online] Available at: https://in.finance.yahoo.com/q/hp?s=NAB.AXa=08b=1c=2015d=08e=15f=2016g=m [Accessed 15 Sep. 2016]. Markets.ft.com. 2016.National Australia Bank Ltd, NAB:ASX financials - FT.com. [online] Available at: https://markets.ft.com/data/equities/tearsheet/financials?s=NAB:ASX [Accessed 15 Sep. 2016]. Nab.com.au. 2016.Nab.com.au. [online] Available at: https://www.nab.com.au/content/dam/nabrwd/About-Us/shareholder%20centre/documents/annual-financial-report-2015.pdf [Accessed 15 Sep. 2016]. Roberts, M.R. and Whited, T.M., 2012. Endogeneity in empirical corporate finance. Vernimmen, P., Quiry, P., Dallocchio, M., Le Fur, Y. and Salvi, A., 2014.Corporate finance: theory and practice. John Wiley Sons. Waegelein, J.F. and Finance, C., 2014. The Influence of Long-Term Performance Plans on Corporate Performance Investment.